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2014 January 17
by bvancampenhout


School of Agricultural Sciences

Friday, 31 January 2014 from 2:30—4:00 p.m.
School of Agricultural Sciences Conference Room

Gender inequalities in ownership and control of land in Africa

Amber Peterman
University of North Carolina – Chapel Hill - USA

ABSTRACT: Over the past decade, stakeholders have made a variety of generalized claims concerning women’s landownership, both globally and in Africa. Typically, these claims include statements with single statistics, such as “women own less than 2 percent of the world’s land” or “women own approximately 15 percent of land in Africa south of the Sahara.” These claims are problematic because they are not substantiated by empirical evidence, do not reflect variations in landownership across or within countries, do not acknowledge differences in landownership regimes, nor address comparative ownership by men in the same contexts. Neither do they address the difference between ownership and control of land. The lack of a clear understanding behind statistics on gender and land also leads to an inability to clearly articulate a policy response to the potential inequalities faced by women and men. The objective of this paper is to explore, conceptually and empirically, the levels and relative inequalities in landownership between women and men in African countries. The first section of the paper engages in a conceptual discussion of how to measure gendered land outcomes, what ownership and control mean in different contexts, and why attention to these factors is important for the development of gender and land statistics. The second section of the paper systematically reviews existing evidence from microlevel large sample studies by region to summarize recent trends in land access, ownership, and control by sex. The third section presents new statistics from a variety of nationally representative and large-scale unpublished data on gender and land in Africa. Results provide not only a nuanced understanding of the importance of measuring land indicators for gendered development in Africa and globally but also new statistics on a variety of land outcomes to aid stakeholders in the discussion of gender-land inequalities.

Investigating the Gender Gap in Agricultural Productivity: Evidence from Uganda

Marguerite Duponchel
The International Growth Center - Uganda

ABSTRACT: Females make up 43 percent of the agricultural labor force in the developing world (FAO 2011). Yet substantive productivity gaps between male and female-headed households and male and female-managed plots have been widely documented. FAO (2011) estimates that closing these gaps could increase agricultural output in low income countries by 2.5 to 4 percent, thus reducing the number of undernourished by 12-17 per cent. This paper positions itself among the handful of studies that explore the nature of the gender gap using plot level analysis. We use the two latest rounds of data from the Uganda National Panel Survey collected in 2009/10 and 2010/11 that allow us to investigate the (in)efficiency of intra-household allocation of resources. We found that female-managed plots are on average 15 per cent less productive than male-managed plots but the gap in yield per acre almost entirely closes when controlling for manager’s characteristics, input use, investment and crop choices. The results point towards significant regional variations, with a persistent gender gap in the Western region. Targeted policies to address constraints faced by female farmers could substantially raise overall agricultural productivity in Uganda.

This seminar series is co-hosted by the Makerere School of Agricultural Sciences, the International Food Policy Research Institute, and the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture and is presented as a platform for information sharing of research findings on a broad range of topics relevant to agricultural production in Uganda.

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